Friday, 5 July 2013

Part 26 - Questions - By Yudhisthira - Part 1


Question Slogams

Slogam 2
Kimekam daivatam loke kim vapyekam parayanam |
Stuvantah kam ka marchantah prapnuyuh manavah-shubham ||
“Sri yudhishThira asked “In this universe who is the one Divinity (at whose command all beings function)? What is that one supreme Status which one should seek to attain? Who is that Divinity by praising whom and by worshipping whom a man attains the good?  “”

Slogam 3
Ko dharmah sarva-dharmanam bhavatah paramo matah |
Kim japanmuchyate janthuh janma samsara-bandhanat ||
“Which according to you is the highest form of dharma (capable of  bestowing salvation and prosperity on man)? What is that by  uttering or reciting which any living being can attain freedom   from the cycle of births and deaths?" 

Meaning of the six questions

So the Six questions asked by Yudhistra in the above two slogams are as follows.

1)Kimekam daivatam loke = which is that one entity which is supreme and regarded as God? . Yethu oppu uyarvatra dhaivam ?
2)Kimvapekam paraayanam = which is the single final destination for us? Yethu oppu uyarvatrathana siranthathana ayanam i.e purushartham – adaiyathagunthathu ?
3)Sthuvantam kam = who is to be praised?. yaara stotram panna vendum ?   yaarai thozhugai/pujai(stuvanam) panna vendum. 
4)Kamarchanda prapnuyur manavasubham = who is to be worshiped to attain welfare? Yaara archanai panna vendum ?
5)Ko dharma sarva dharmanam bhavata paramo matha = though you [Bheeshma] have preached so many dharma, which is the one you follow and regard as supreme dharma ? Neer arintha dharmangalileye yethu siranthathana dharmam ?

6)Kim japan muchyate jantu janma samsara bhandanath = by chanting which or whom, every living being gets liberated from this samsaram [worldly life]? Yethai japam(Salambayana upayamaga kondu) seithu  perumalai adaiya vendum ?

Background for those 6 questions

In the above 2 slogam, 6 questions were asked by Yudhistra to Bheesma.  Similarly we have  
·         4 slogam 6 vishayam explained in Gita by Kannan,
·         2 slogam 5 vishayam explained  in Varaha peruman’s charama slokam,
·         2 slogam 6 vishayam explained in Vishnu Sahasranamam.

Thatva, Hita and Purushartham

These questions are to understand Thatva, Hita and Purushartham.
Thatvam - means unmai porul - Reality
Hita – Adaivikira vazhi – Upayam – Sadhanam - Means
Purushartham – Adainthu anubhavikara yethu - Upeyam – Goal

So those 6 questions are grouped as follows
  • One Question on thatvam  - Reality
  • One  Question on purushartham - upeyam- ultimate goal. Upeyam are of three types – Good, Better , Best – Priyam, Priyatharam, Priyathamam
  • Four Questions on upayam - Sadhanam ie Upayam - means to reach the ultimate goal.  There are many ways to reach the end goal and hence Upayam are of three types - Siddha, Saadhya, and SaalamBana Upayam.  Upayam are also of three types – Hitam, HItatharam, Hitathamam. The best is referred as “thamam”.

The best of the Upayam or Upeyam need to be accepted and followed, rest need to be ignored. Hence Yudhistra’s questions are oriented in finding the best of the thathvam, Upeyam and Upayam. 

Artha Panchakam

Everyone (Samsari) needs to know three things.
  1. Thanai pathina gynanam  (Jeevatma Swaropam)
  2. Yethu bhagawanidathil adaivikumo athu pathina gyanam i.e adai vikira vazhi – (Upaya Swaropam)
  3. Adainthu yethai anubhavika porano athu pathina gyanam. I.e purushartham – (Upeya Swaropam)

Additionally,  one needs to understand two more things on top of the above three.
  1. Thanai pathi ariya, ivan yevanale undanano avanai pathi ariyamal thannai pathi ariya muduyathu. So to understand about Jeevatma one needs to understand paramatma also. (Paramatma Swaropam)
  2. Virodhi swaropam – ithanai nalaaga adaiya vidamal thaduthathu yethu? (Virodhi swaropam)

One need to understand the 5 things also knows as Artha Panchakam, which are the basis for Vishistaadvaita Sampradayam.
  1.  Paramatma Swaropam - The nature of Brahman to be attained (praapyam)
  2. Jeevatma Swaropam - the nature of the individual self who aspires to attain (praaptaa)
  3. Upaya Swaropam - the means of accomplishing the goal (praaptyupaaya)
  4. Upeya Swaropam - nature of Goal (phala)
  5. Virodhi swaropam, - obstacles in the way of accomplishing (praapti virOdhi)

Vishistaadvaitha (Srivaishnava) scriptures and granthas are focused on these five categories. These five topics cover the entire teachings of Vedas, Ithihasas and Puranas and Vedanta Sutras.

ThiruvAymozhi thaniyan -  Sri Parasara Bhattar aruLich seydhavai
mikka iRai nilaiyum meyyAm uyir nilaiyum
thakka neRiyum thadaiyAgith - thokkiyalum
Uzh vinaiyum vAzh vinaiyum Odhum kurugaiyar kOn
yAzhin isai vEdhaththiyal
Meaning : The Tamil Vedam of Tiruvoimozhi composed by Kurugai Piraan (Nammalwar) contains the five great realities namely: (i) the nature of the Eternal Paramatma (ii) the nature of the eternal Jeevatma (iii) the means for the Jeevatma to attain the goal of  Paramatma (iv) the impediments on the way and
(v) the goal of ultimate life of happiness in Moksha."

Why we need to understand the meaning of Thatvam?

Based on how one understands the thatvam, upayam and upeyam will fall in place.
If someone understands that thatvam is Achit then upayam(means) will be to earn money and live happily with family – this is called Aishwarya Anubhavam. This is the last step (padikattu) where one interprets that Achit is Thatvam.

Azhwar said this in Thiruvaimozhi – pasuram  3220, 4.9.10
kaNdu kEttu utRu mOndhu
 uNdu uzhalum * aingkaruvi
 kaNda inbam * therivariya
aLavillAch chitRinbam **
 oNthodiyAL thirumagaLum *
 nIyumE nilA niRpa *
 kaNda sadhir kaNdozhindhEn *
 adaindhEn un thiruvadiyE
Meaning : “I have seen the pleasure of the five sense-organs by seeing, hearing,feeling, smelling and eating and the inferior bliss (Kaivalya) beyond one's awareness. Having discarded in toto these after seeing the excellence of Lakshmi of lovely bangles and you together, I have attained your sacred feet.”

If someone understands that thatvam is  Jeevatma who is vikarame illatha, gyana ananda swaroopamana jeevathma, anumathra swaroopamana jeevathma. Then he will result in athmaanubhavam called Kaivalya Anubhavam. This is the second step ( padikattu).
One will get bored of Athma anubhavam after some time. How long one can experience himself?  So thoughts of having a swami and experiencing his vaibhavam will come in.

So there comes the last and ultimate step (padikattu) called Bhagavad anubhavam.

Aishwarya Anubhavam, Kaivalya Anubhavam, Bhagavad Anubhavam

Interesting post to understand the above in detail…
<<note:: From SriPedia - ebooks - Vedanta Desikan’s - Saranagati Deepika>>

Fifty Sixth slOkam of Sri SaraNAgathi DhIpikai , where Swamy Desikan describes his helpless state and begs the Lord of ThirutthaNkA to fulfill his desire to experience Moksha Sukham as a Prapannan .He acknowledges his recognition of the seven blemishes associated with the enjoyment of the SvargAnuhavam as well as kaivalyAnubhavam and begs to be rescued from these  temptations and begs for true MokshAnanadham :

SrI SaraNAgathi DhIpikai: SlOkam 56
alpa-asTirai: asukhajai: asukhAvasAnai:
dukkhAnvithai: anuchithai:abhimAna-moolai:
prathyak parAg anubhavai: parigUrNitham mAm
Thvayi-yEva NaaTa charitArTaya nirvivikshum

Oh ViLakkoLi PerumAnE! adiyEn's mind has been swirling over the thoughts of enjoying the sukham of Svargam ( temporary bhOgam of perishable pleasures)and the sukham of Kaivalyam (pure enjoyment of aathmA). adiyEn until now was torn between these two choices since they looked attractive to pursue. adiyEn's confusion is all over now. adiyEn has clearly understood the insufficencies of Svarga and Kaivalya  sukhams and recognize both have following seven dhOshams:
(1) These two sukhams are paltry and insignificant, when compared to the adhbhutha sukham of enjoying You
(2) They are not lasting
(3)To enjoy them , there is the need to goad the indhriyams and the body
(4) at  the end of enjoying these two sukhams , there is no aanandham
(5) during the course of their enjoyment , the worries about the births to be taken at the end of the svarga and kaivalya anubhavams haunt the jeevan and mar the enjoyment.There is therefore no tranquil enjoyment of these two sukhams
(6)These pleasures are not inappropraite for the Jeevan's svaroopam , which is all about deriving aanandham from enjoying You(Seshi) as Seshan
(7) Finally , disturbing thoughts arise during the enjoyment of these sukhams in that it makes  one conclude that one is enjoying these sukham for one's own sake.

These are the seven imperfections in enjoying the Svarga and Kaivalya sukhams. In the case of Kaivalyam , one can concede that two of the seven imperfections can be taken out (viz)., Kaivalya anubhavam does not have the admixture of Dukkham and is not caused by Dukkham. There are still five imperfections that still cloud the Kaivalya anubhavam.Now that adiyEn fully understands the pitfalls and consequences of these two types of "sukhams", the intensity of my desire to enjoy ParipoorNa BrahmAnandham  through Saayuya Moksham has grown tremendously. adiyEn rejects Svarga Sukham and kaivalya Moksham of enjoying the AathmA alone. Oh DhIpa PrakAsA ! Please bless adiyEn with the true Moksha Sukham of performing nithya kaimkaryam for You at SrI Vaikuntam as a Muktha Jeevan and spare me  from the pits of Svaragam and kaivalyam! This is the only
lasting sukham that adiyEN longs for .

Additional Comments
Indra"s lOkam is known as Svargam . He is the Lord of this lOkam . His subjects are the DEvAs. They have partaken nectar and are free of aging and disease . Thet enjoy exquisite sukhams with celestail damsels and other Iswaryams . In to this world arrives a jeevan because of the accumulated puNyams and spends some time partaking all the pleasures of Svargam . Once the Jeevan's puNyams are spent , it returns to the samsAric world to work out its residual karmAs. Hence staying in Svargam is siRRinbham and is insignificant (alpam ) compared to the pErinbham of residence in SrI Vaikuntam from where one never returns to the karma bhUmi to undergo repeated cycles of births and deaths.
The residence in Svargam is asTiram or impermanent. When the jeevan thinks of what is awaiting at the end of its stay in Svargam wearing the best of clothes ,jewelery and enjoying good food in the company of celestial women ,it is frightened over the prospects and gets saddened ( asukhajai: asukha avasAnai: anubhavams). The jeevan forgets that these svarga anubhavams rejected by AzhwArs as unfit and inappropriate (Indira lOkam AaLum acchuvai peRinum VENDEn ). The pride and ego arising from such svargAnubhavams makes the jeevan forgets its svaroopa Jn~Anam and deludes the jeevan to think that it is enjoying these pleasures for its own sake.

SvargAnubhavam is therefore Vaikunta VirOdhi. In his SrI Sookthi known as VirOdha ParihAram , Swamy Desikan points out that SrIman NaarAyaNan drives away these Moksha virOdhis like Svarga anubhavam and Kaivalya anubhavam for those , who perform Prapatthi or pursue Bhakthi Yogam
so that such fortunate ones can attain SrI Vaikuntam and enjoy true Moksha Sukham:

SrIman NaarAyaNa: SwAmi SaraNya: sarva-dEhinAm
bhUyAth nija-padha-prApthi VIRODHI VINIVAARAKA:

--VirOdha ParikAram : SlOkam 1

Kaivalyam is also Vaikunta PrApthi VirOdhi ( hindrance to the parama purushArTam of attaining Saayujya Moksham). What is this Kaivalyam? It is the direct vision of the true nature of the Self ( aathma svaroopa saakshAthkAram ). Kaivalya is the state of existence of the soul enjoying the bliss of JivAthman.It is not considered as the true state of Moksham. It is considered as an inferior version of Moksham because there is no Bhagavath sAkshAthkAram (BhagavAn realization ) here. In his ThiruvAimozhi 1.7.1, Swamy NammazhwAr comes to this conclusion:

" It is a pity that the gracious Lord is worshipped constantly by those , who desire to overcome the dukkham of repeated births and deaths and resort to Jn~Ana Yoga for the purpose of attaiing the blissful experience of the soul (Kaivalyam)".

Therefore Swamy NammAzhwAr instructs us not to seek Kaivalya but to seek the eternal aanandham of Moksham, where the Muktha jeevan is engaged in nithya kaimkaryam to the Lord at SrI Vaikuntam.This Kaivalyam or KevalaavasthA, the individual Self becomes free from bondage , but does not experience the bliss of the Lord as Parama Purushan.In kaivalyam , ParamAthma-SaakshAthkaram is missing and the focus is on
aathmAvalOkanam ;kaivalyam is considered the final stage in Jn~Ana Yogam , which in turn is considered as an auxillary means to Bhakthi Yoga, which alone is the direct upAyam to Moksham just like prapatthi yOgam.

After dismissing both kaivalyam and SvargAnubhavam as alpam , asTiram , asukhajam ,asukha-avasAnam , dukkha-anvitham ,anuchitham to one's svaroopam and abhimAna moolam , Swamy Desikan states that he is no longer tossed about by the desires for Svarga and kaivalya sukhams.
He says that the ever-lasting , woe-free sukham that he is seeking is the sukham of ParipoorNa BrahmAnandham realized through Nithya kaimkaryam to the Dhivya dampathis at their Supreme Abode of SrI Vaikunam. Swamy Desikan prostrates before the Lord and asks Him to fulfill His desire to enjoy the true Sukham of Saayujya mOksaham ( Thvayi yEva nirvivikshum mAm charitArTaya).


No comments:

Post a Comment