Monday, 29 July 2013

Part 35 - Answers by Bheesma – Part 7

ஸ்ரீராமஜெயம்

Answer 6 for Question 1 on The Supreme Entity – Dhaivatam - Thathvam

Q 1 kimEkam dhaivatam lokE?
Meaning : Who is the greatest Lord in the world/shastram? Who is the One (Supreme) Deity?  Shastrathule(loke)  yethu oppu uyarvatra thaivam ?  Note that Loke here refers to Shastram.
Question is about:  Thatvam.
Order Reason : Then 1st question on thatvam. Sixth answer was on the 1st  Question on thatvam  (ultimate reality) which was the first question and answered last.

Answer :
Slogam 10
Pavitranam pavitram yo mangalanam cha mangalam |
Daivatam devatanam cha bhootanam yovyayah pita ||
(First line is Answer for Question 2 on upEya - kim vaapyEkam parAyaNam? )
(Second line is Answer for Question 1 on Thatvam  - kimEkam dhaivatam lokE? )

Slogam 11
Yatah sarani bhutani bhavantyadi yugagame |
Yasminscha pralayam yanti punareva yugakshaye ||
(Answer for Question 1 on Thatvam  - kimEkam dhaivatam lokE? )

Slogam 12
Tasya loka pradhanasya jaganna-thasya bhupate |
Vishnor nama-sahasram me shrunu papa-bhayapaham ||
(Answer for Question 1 on Thatvam  - kimEkam dhaivatam lokE? )

Meaning :
Yevan idathil irunthu bhoothangal oruvagiratho, yevan idathil sendru layikiratho, yevanale rakshika padugiratho, avane loga Nathan, avane jagannathan, avane Vishnu, avane eka devathai.
·         bhootanam yovyayah pita  : Bhoothangalukku yellam kazhivillatha pitha yaru ? avyayah pita – he is the father for everyone and always he is the father. (   PITA-PUTRA
·         Daivatam devatanam – yella deivangalukku avan daivam.
(Note : Who is he is explained in the next slogam )
·         Yatah sarvani bhutani – yevan idathil irunthu bhoothangal yellam thondruginranavo
·         Bhavanty adi yugagame – muthal yugam arambhikum kalathe
·         Yasminscha pralayam yanti - yevan idathil yellam sendru layikiratho
·         Tasya – antha jagad karana vastuvana bhagawan
·         Lokanathan
·         pradhanan
·         Jagannathan –  he is the jagannathan
·         Hye BHupate – Bheeshma is addressing Yudhitra as “BHupate” avanai patthi than solla pogiren.
(Note – he is yet to say/reveal who is that deivatam)
·         Vishnor nama-sahasram – Vishnu vin sahasra namathai pattri than solla pogiren
·         papa-bhayapaham – papathaiyum, papathinal undagum bayathaiyum azhikum, pokkum
·         shrunu – ketpai -  yendru sollugirar Bheesmar.  Here Bheesmar says Ketpai to reiterate the importance of what he is saying and trying to get attention.  One more reason for saying shrunu  Bheesma  to yudhistra “No one is there to say these names or hear these names, I am here so now you listen. After this I will get moksham and not sure if there is anyone to say so listen to what I say”.
Andal says “Melaiyar seivinaigal kettiye.. “   periavachan pillai says thodai thatti “kanna kelu , yenna vendum yendru solla pogiren kellu”.

  • More detailed meaning to say Bhagavan being the instrumental cause of creation, including the four faced Brahma - Brahmame Jagad karanam

Finally, in response to the first question about the One Supreme Entity prescribed in the scriptures, Bhishma repliecas from the second half of the previous sloka, beginning with “daivataM”.

  •          daivataM dEvatAnAM’
Thirumangai Azhwar in Nanmugan thiruvandhadhi –
Pasuram 2434 kallAdhavar ilangkai kattazhiththa * kAguththan
allAl * oru dheyvam yAnilEn ** - pollAdha
thEvaraith * thEvar allArai * thiruvillAth
thEvaraith thERElmin thEvu 53
Meaning:
Oh Azhveer! You proudly declare that no one can equal you (ennakkAvAr AroruvarE!) but we are all still struggling, selling ourselves for money (vilaikkAtpaduvar).  Can you please tell us a way to lift us to your position?enquired some samsAris.  Due to his beneficence thirumazhisai piran gives the way out in this paasuram.  Getting away from devathAntara sambhandam is the reason behind my victory and remaining in touch with the other devathas is the cause for your failure.  So get rid of the same so that you face victory, says azhvar.
(kallAdhAr elangai) Lanka the place of Iliterates.  The place that made even piratti wonder if there was not even a single literate there.  One person, vibheeshana who was educated was chucked out of lanka considering to be disqualified to live there.  Here the education is ?sA vidyA yA vimukthayE? (that which teaches the way to moksha).  Those in lanka lacked this knowledge.
(kattazhiththa kAguththan) Chakravarthi thirumagan broke the borders of lanka.
(kAguththan Allal oru deivam yAnilEn) According to me none other than Sri Rama piran is worthy of surrendering.  He alone has vowed to save those who surrender to his feet (sharaNagatha rakshagan)
(yAn elEn) ?marandhum puram thozhA mAndhar? Those who don?t prostrate other devathas even by mistake.  Even if they forget emperuman still they don?t go to the steps of any others.  Since you all lack this faith you are suffering.  Siriya thirvadi who was a great rama bhaktha said, ?bhAvO nAnyathra gachchathi?.  He even refused moksha for the sake of rAmAnubhavam.
Further, azhvar continued to say the characteristics of the devathas and hence it is necessary to get away from them.
(pollAdha dEvar) EmperumAn?s appearance, characteristics, acts are all divine and so attractive to the bhakthas whereas in contrast the other devas are ?kAnilum vurupolAr, sevikkinAtha keerthiyAr, pEnilum varam thara midukkilAdhAr? (they are ugly in appearance, their stories are not pleasant to our ears and when approached they are incapable of granting all our wishes) Leaving the divine senthAmarai kannan why go at the back of viroopAkshan?
Azhvar used the word ?devan? to refer to rudran and other devathas but suddenly azhvar realized that while going through the actual meaning of the word ?deva? it no where suits these so-called devas.  So azhvar corrects himself saying,
(dEvarallArai) Even if they do not have good appearance or stories it will be ok if atleast they have power.  But they lack even that whatever they possess is that which was obtained begging Sriman Narayanan.  So in what way shall we consider themselves to be worthy of surrendering?
(thiruvillA dEvarai) ?sradhdhayA dEvO dEvatva mashnutE? (Due to the presence of periya piratta, deva nArayana attains the qualities to be a deva)  So even emperuman attains the status of a deva due to the presence of piratti.  For others there is no Sri sambhandam.  Mokshapradhan is none other than Sri:pathi (?hreeshchathE lakshmeescha pathnow? declares the purusha sooktham)  All other than Sriman nArayanan, lack lakshmi sambhandam and hence called as ?pollAdha devarai?/?ThiruvillA devarai? by thirumazhisai piran.
(tErEnmin dEvu) Initially these so-called devas may grant you wealth, children, cow, food etc but whatever they grant is temporary and lowly.  Moreover as per the words of geethAcharyan, ?mayaiva vihithAn hidhAn? (everything is granted only by me in various forms).  So shedding the sambhandam with other devathas and if you fall to the divine feet of emperuman then you are sure to talk with confidence like me, ?ennakkAvar AroruvarE?
“kalladhavar ilangkai kattu azhithan..” -  Kalladhavargalai illangaiyil azhithan raman. So the question is was not vibhishana there in Lanka ? Vibhishnan is katravan he is not part of the rakshasha gang. That is why when vibhishana was in lanka, lanka was not destroyed, instead it was destroyed after Vibhishanan came out of Lanka.
kAguththan allAl  oru dheyvam yAnilEn – “antha ramanai thavira oru deivam illai”. Question 1 is kimEkam dhaivatam lokE? – who is the one deivam and this Q ‘s answer is as per the meaning  in the above pasuram. Ottar, mikkar illatha bhagawan ramachandra bhagawan mattum than. Only Sriman Narayanan is Deivam (pooranamana Deivam) due to his Sri Sambhandam.

Explanation for Devaha ::
1) “Kreeda” –whoever plays is devan and devan plays the game of Shristi.
Kambhan says – “ulagam yavaiyum than ulavakkalum”…“Jagathai shristhikum vilaiyattai vilayadubhavan bhagawan”.
Who is devan ?  One who plays
What is the play ? Shristi, samharam
Who does Shristi ? Vishnu
Then who is the devan ? Vishnu
2)“Vyavagaram” – means “sabdhathai yeduthu vazhakkathuku kondu varuvathu”  vyavagaram. Next question is which Sabdham. Not all sounds/sabdham becomes sabdham. It has to be from vedas. Vedathil oru sabdham ozhunga ucharithal avan bhramanan agiran, seriyaga ucharikavillai yendral yeppadi piranthum pirayojanam illai.  Vedam is only the Sabdham./sorkal/words.   Who took the vedas and brought them into  practice ? Vishnu created Brahma and he did upadesam of Veda’s to Brahma. This is the starting place of his Vyavagaram . 
Reference : ‘povil naan muganai padaitha devan” also in “yo bhrahmanam..”
Vishnu created Brahma and he ahd 4 faces. Vishnu used to teach brahma all the 4 veda’s to all the 4 faces of brahma.  Only with this input and details about the veda, brahma begins his responsibility of Shristi/Creation.  At times, Brahma happen to lose the Veda’s and it is Vishnu who helped Brahma in getting back the Veda’s to continue on his responsibility of creation/shristi.  
Hamsa avatharam panni Vedathai yeduthu koduthan bhagawan.  Many such avatharam for the sake of veda
Reference from -  Naan Muganai Naraayanan Padaithaan- Naan Muganum
Thaan Mugamaaai Sankaranaithaan Padaithaan
Yaan Mugamaai Anthaadhi Melittu Arivithen - Aazh Porulai
Sinthaamal Konmin Neer Therndhu
"The four faced Brahma was born to Narayana and to this Brahma was born Sankara. I am declaring this truth in this Antadhi. Resort to this without any doubt, if you desire to wipe out the pangs of birth"
The AzhwAr was so straight forwarded, outspoken, fearless and established the oneness and supremacy of Sriman Narayanan and srivaishnavam.
3)vibhu vijugisha – puramuthugu ittu odathavan.
We all know where all Shiva had flown away.  Indran, brahman everyone were in trouble.
other devatas like Bramha cannot be a protector, as he himself was not able to protect, the vedas from asuras like Madhu & Kaitabha  & similarly Rudra cannot be a protector since, he himself surrendered to Emperumaan to cleanse his "Bramhahatya dosham" by cutting one of the heads of Bramha
4)vibhu dwithi – abharamana oli ( brightness/shining)
5) vibhu Gati – Yaru thiruvadigal Gaityaga irukumo avane devan.  All relation is Narayanan
6) Dighu modha – The one who is full of Aanandam without dhukkam.
Thirumangai Alwar verses of Thirkurunthandakam"
piNtiyAr maNtai En^thip piRarmanai thirithan^ thuNNum,
uNtiyAn sApam theerththa oruvanoor, ulaka mEththum
kaNtiyUr arangkam meyyam kassipEr mallai enRu
maNtinAr, uyyal allAl maRRaiyArk kuyya lAmE? 19
Meaning :
The Sarvesvara Tattvam of the Lord is saluted by the Azhwaar in this Pasuram. He salutes
Hara Saapa Vimochana Murthy of Kandiyur Divya Desam along with the presiding Archa
Murthys of other sacred sites such as Srirangam, Thirumeyyam, Kanchi, Thirupper and Mallai.
From the incomplete Darsana Samanaakaram state (resembling direct seeing) of Bhakthi
Yogam, the Azhwaar goes on to the actual experience of feasting one's eyes on the
Subhaasrayam (Thirumeni) of the Archamurthys of the different Divya Desams
Shiva, who was roaming for a long time, with skull in his hand and who would eat by begging alms was (rescued) wiped off from his curse (fom bramha hatya dosham) by the lord who resides in Thirukandiyoor, Thiruvarangam, Thirumeeyam, Thirukacchi, Thirupernagar & Thirukadalmallai,........................
Bhagwan is full of aanandam. Vedam wanted to measure this anandam?
INorder to measure something, we need to start from somewhere.
We know what is manushya aanandam – one has to be strong(thidam/balam) explanined as  capability to digest even if you eat at 11.30PM, if he can do something all by himself which is usually done by 10 people, periyavanin aasirvathathuke yetravanai iruthal, aishwaryam.
This manushya aanandam is step 1 and 100 times better than what devar’s aanandam is and 100 time s better is indiran’s and like that is perumal’s aanandam more than that…? No I am unable to measure it says vedam.  Because he is full of aanandam, aandandamayan ..which cannot be measured..
7) dighu matha : Serukku
He is the niyanthan and hence he is full of serukku
8) Dighu Sittuthi : Avanai Stotram panna  mudiyum

Like this with whatever adjectives(dhatu?) we use and try to explain, it is clear that.
Marichan says “Ram’s prabhavam is itself great and now he is with Sita. So Ram’s prabhavam is multi-fold which I cannot understand easily using my knowledge”.

He is verily the Supreme Godhead entity among demigods such as Brahma, Shiva, Indra et al. (‘daivataM dEvatAnAM’). How?
Next question one shall have is “Why only Vishnu is called Devata”
Answering this question he says bhootanam yovyayah pita.
  •          bhootanam yovyayah pita – yevan oruthan Maratha pithavo
 Our fathers change after one Janmam, but he is our father forever in all the janmam.
“Kannaneer paicha vendatha thai thanthai” – we need to cry one day when we lose our parents but for this father who is Sriman Narayanan we need not cry. Like Prahalad, Azhwar, Dhruvan we need to think/accept/understand that bhagawan is our father.
So Only “Avyayah pita” will protect us.
Apart from Emperumaan Sriman Narayana no body is our saviour" as explained by Swamy Pillai Lokachariar in Mumukshupudi sutram no 39
'Isvaranai ozhinthavarkaL rakshakarallar' ennumidam prapanna
parithrANaththilE sonnOm.
Meaning:
That no one other than Sarvesvaran/Emperumaan  is capable of offering protection (was told in the rahasya grantha Prapanna Parithranam)
Why is it that No others can be our savior apart from Emperumaan?
We have so many relations mother, father, brother, husband, relatives, & other devatas why can't they all be our protectors, this is beautifully explained by our poorvacharyas
Mother and Father (parents in general) are not protectors is explained well by Hiranya (who tortured his son Prahaladha) & kaikeyi (who sent her son Rama to forest)
Brothers are not protectors is explained by characters of Vaali (who who had inflicted untold suffering on his brother Sugreeva) & Ravana (who criticized  his brother Vibeeshana & did not listen to the hitopadesham which made the latter to leave him)
Husband is not a protector well explained  by Pandava brothers (who could not save their wife, when she was humiliated in Kaurava sabha)
Relatives such as Amman(maternal uncle) are not protectors described through the characters of Kamasa (who even killed the children of his sister Devaki) and other devatas like Bramha cannot be a protector, as he himself was not able to protect, the vedas from asuras like Madhu & Kaitabha  & similarly Rudra cannot be a protector since, he himself surrendered to Emperumaan to cleanse his "Bramhahatya dosham" by cutting one of the heads of Bramha

So Only “Avyayah pita” will protect all of us. 
Since He is the caring and affectionate father of all such beings, right from devas up to the most ignorant creatures in this creation (‘bhUtAnAM pitA’).
The prime difference between Him and the fathers that we have in our respective births in this creation is that He is eternal (‘avyayaH’). He never ceases to exist as an ever caring father in all our births. Since He is eternal, and referred by the name ‘sanAtana’ (existing from time immemorial), no one in this world is an orphan.
Such fatherhood of the Supreme Entity is shown here, with the slokas beginning with ‘yataH sarvANi’.
Now that we have accepted that he is our Pita/father, then it is clear that “He is the cause/Karanam”. Now Bheeshma next explains on how he is the cause or Karanam.
  •          Yatah sarvani bhutani – yevan idathil irunthu bhoothangal yellam thondruginranavo
‘yataH’ (by whom) – indicates that He is the instrumental cause of this creation
‘sarvANi’ (all) – refers to absolutely everything right from the four faced Brahma up to the lowest branch of a tree
  •          Bhavanty adi yugagame – muthal yugam arambhikum kalathe
‘bhUtAni bhavaMti’ – objects are born
‘AdiyugAgamE’ – When the lifetime of one four-faced Brahma ends, Bhagavan creates another four faced Brahma and continues with the creation process thereon. Also, to indicate that such type of creation – of even the four faced Brahma – is not just at the beginning of one creation, but at the beginning of every such creation with several cycles of 71 chaturyugas (a cycle of four yugas namely kRta, trEta, dvApara and kali, recurring 71 times, which is the lifetime of Brahma), Bhishma has used the word ‘AdiyugAgamE’, indicating the beginning of every such cycle.

The material cause is also said to be the Supreme Brahman Himself. Ultimately, at the end of all cycles of creation, all the creatures – sentient and insentient – get reabsorbed into the same Brahman. It is well known that the end of all matter is in its original material state, just like a spider absorbing its web made out of its saliva into itself at the end. The conjunction ‘and’ (‘cha’ in the sloka) indicates that the cause of sustenance and growth of all creatures in the creation is itself the auxiliary cause.

Taitreeya Upanishad says – “Yatho …” – “Brahmam Brahmam nu yara sollaren theiryuma? Nam kangalinal parkum vastukal yellam yevan idathil irunthu oruvanginratho(pirakinradho), yevanale ippadi piranthavaigal yellam kakka paduginranavo, yevanaiye kadaisiyil sendru serugiratho, yarale mokshathai adaiyumo, athai nandraga therinchiko ..athuve brahmam” to explain Brahmame Jagad karanam.
The Vedic statements also reflect the same thoughts indicating the nature of being the three types of causes as the characteristic of Brahman. For instance, Vedas declare “From whom these creatures are born, by whose grace these born creatures live, into whom all these living creatures get absorbed at the end of creation, know that entity to be the Supreme Brahman. Seek to know about that Brahman” et al.

Same thing is told by Bheesma in Yatah sarvani bhutani, Bhavanty adi yugagame, Yasminscha pralayam yanti.

Brahmam is the karanan for everything/everyone, aaschariyamana karanam, Thanakku oru karanam illatha karanan. – Akila Karanan, Adbhutha Karanam, Nish Karanan

Adbhutha Karanam explained…
Perumal does not have father/mother and to fulfill that in his vibhavatharam he has father/mother. Yashodha, Vasudevan, Kausalya, Dasarathan etc..  Kurai illai, athuve bhagawanukku niraivu.
Adbhutha Karanan – Including azhwar’s have not seen Bhagawan while in this material world and still we all keep talking that he is the material cause. This is adbhutha karanam. Though we do not see the relationship between him and us, we still believe and all those relationship do exist.

Kannan says in BG "I have all this with me. But is not there” Example “Sakkarai pongal thonnaiyil irukirathu”, Similarly we shall think “Jagad athanaiyum Brahmathil irukirathu”.  Next question is what is the relationship between the container and the item in it ?  No the relationship between Him and us is not something we can see like how we feel the container and the item in that container, instead it is like a cloth. When weaving a cloth there is “Undai pavu”(horizontal/vertical threads), like this Undai pavu all the Chit/Achit are knitted with me. One can see, only the cloth and cannot see the undai and pavu. But if one uses the tool called shastram and then he can understand the internals i.e undai and pavu too.

Swami desikan explains this in Shastriya sangita (?) which is told in BG chapter 7 , verse 7 -  as “sutre mani-gana iva” - All the  chetana’s(mani/beads) are tied in a twine/string called Bhagawan.  One can see only the beads and not the string, Only one string to hold all the beads, it is the string which is holding the beads though it looks as if the beads are holding the string and if the string is pulled all the beads fall apart.  
So it is the brahmam who is holding all the chit/achit. This is Adbhutha Karanam.

Akila Karanam
Emperumanar explains in the beginning of Sri bhasyam
akhila bhuvana janmasthEma bhangAdhaleelE
vinatha vividha bhoothavrAtha-rakshaika dheekshE
shruthi shirasi vidheepthE bhramhaNi shreenivAsE
bhavathu mam parasmin shEmushee bhakthiroopA||
Meaning from Sadagopan.org SS060 - Sri bhashyam -sadhana adhyayam.pdf
‘May my intellect, semushi, be engrossed in devotion, bhakthirupa bhavathu, on Lord Srinivasa, the Supreme Brahman, brahmani srinivase, who is shining on the crown of the vedas, sruthisirasi Vidheepthe, who has vowed to protect all beings who bow down to Him and follow His path vinathavidhitha bhothavraatha rakshaika dhikshe, and for whom the acts like creation sustenance and annihilation are mere sport, akhilabhuvanajanmasthemabhangaadhileele.’

So this Shreenivasan does – “akhila bhuvana janma sthEma bhangAdha leelE”.   Here he says Akhila Bhuvana instead of sakala bhuvana  - Sakala means everything, Akhila means everything without leaving anything, he could have used nikila which also means Akhila but “Aakara” sabhdham is Vishnu sabdhdam and more auspicious than starting with “Ni”.

"Causes" or "karanas" are divided into two categories: "nimitta" and "upadana".
Thus the upadana karanam is explained.
From earth/ clay a pot is made by the potter
From cotton a thread is made by the weaver
From gold a chains is made by the goldsmith
From Brahmam the entire jagad is made by the brahmam

Earth,Cotton, Gold, brahmam are upadana karanam/material cause
Potter, weaver, goldsmith, Brahmam are nimitta karanam/instrumental cause who is actually doing the sankalpam to do it.
Sahakaari Karanam are the tools that is used like desk, cutting tools etc.

The one who is all these three Karanamam – upadana, Nimitta, Sahakari is the Brahmam.
This is the one of the key concept of Vishistaadvaitam where Upadanam and nimittam is done by brahmam itself. This is referred as “Abhinna nimittopadana Brahmam”
Brahmam the moment it does the sankalpam, everything is formed. This is a game he plays.
At the end of the game he absorbs everything back on to him.

----------**** from SriRangaSri---------------------
TIRUVOIMOZHI  1.5.4: (6)
tAn Or uruvE tani vittAi tannil mUvar mudalAya
vAnOr palarum munivarum maRRum maRRum muRRumAi
tAn Or peru nIr tan uLLE tORRi adanuL kaN vaLarum
vAnOr perumAn mA mAyan vaikuntan en perumAnE.
nammAzhvAr describes bhagavAn’s role in Creation in more detail in this pASuram. He points out that bhagavAn is the Sole Creator of everything in all the Universes, without any other external aid of any kind (tAn Or uruvE tani vittAi). He created brahmA and rudra as part of the trio with Him being the first, or the Creator (tannil mUvar mudalAya).

In the first two pASuram-s of this tiruvAimozhi (1.5.1 and 1.5.2), which we did not cover, AzhvAr sings the praise of bhagavAn’s parattvam – Supremacy or mEnmai. Then, in pASuram 1.5.3, which we just covered, he praises His sauSIlyam or nIrmai, and indicates that bhagavAn is equally great in His
sauSIlyam as He is in His parattvam. In the current pASuram, AzhvAr points out that His sauSIlyam is indeed His dominant guNa, and His parattvam is only subservient to His sauSIlyam. This is amply evident in His process of creation as described below.

BhagavAn created this whole Universe, all by Himself, by being Himself the upAdAna, nimitta and sahakAri kAraNa-s (the Material, Instrumental, and Supporting causes); He chose to be the Sole Cause so that nothing goes amiss unexpectedly for the creation, by depending on other external causes; He
made all the living and non-living beings part of His body; He became the antaryAmi of all beings so that He resides with each being always, and He did all this by descending down from SrI vaikunTham – His Supreme Abode, where the nitya sUri-s are performing constant and uninterrupted kainkaryam
to Him. In addition, He created the great Ocean in Himself, and is reclining in this Ocean, and waiting there so that He is accessible to the deva-s whenever they want His assistance. All this is because He is the embodiment of sauSIlyam.

The start of every cycle of creation involves a samashTi sRshTi - aggregate, and a vyashTi sRshTi – distinctive, individual. The first two pAda-s (the first two quarters of the four-lines) of the pASuram describe the vyashTi sRshTi, and the third pAda describes samashTi sRshTi. BhagavAn is responsible for both the steps.

tAnE Or tani uru vittAi – This refers to bhagavAn being the sole Origin of all the Universes Himself: i) The Material cause or the upAdAna kAraNa – like the mud for making a mud pot, ii) the Instrumental cause or the nimitta kAraNa– like the pot maker in making the pot, and iii) the Supporting cause or sahakAri kAraNa – like the wheel, water etc. in making the pot. ‘uru’ means ‘beautiful’ – He alone beautifully becomes all the three causes. PurvAcArya-s explain the above ideas through the following grouping of
words:

vittAi – He is the Material Cause or upAdAna kAraNa – like the mud for making the mud pot.
tani vittAi – He is the Instrumental Cause or nimitta kAraNa – like the pot maker for making the pot.
Or tani vittAi – He is also the Supporting Cause or sahakArI kAraNa – like the wheel, water, etc. that are needed for making the pot.
Note that in all matters of any man-made creation such as the pot in this example, the material cause, instrumental cause and the supporting cause are different; not so in bhagavAn’s Creation – He is the Sole Cause for all aspects of Creation.

Or uruvE – He of beautiful form, with no change of any kind in Him because of all this, which is another wonder in itself.

We have an analogous declaration in the upanishad: sadeva somya idam agra AsIt; ekameva advitIyam (chAn. 6.2.1) – “Good looking one! All this universe of diverse names and forms was, prior to creation, only one sat, the ever-existent Reality, ParamAtman, and Non-second”. Note the terms ‘sadeva’, ‘ekameva’, and ‘a-dvitIyam’ in the Upanishad mantra above. ‘ekameva’ refers to His being the sole Material cause; ‘sadeva’ refers to there being no other ‘sahakAri kAraNam’; and ‘advitIyam’ refers to there being no other ‘nimitta kAraNam’. He is the First Cause or upAdAna kAraNam because cit and acit are part of Him. He is the nimitta kAraNam because of His sankalpam to create. He is the sahakAri kAraNam because of His Infinite j~nAna and Sakti to achieve this wonder that is creation.

Why does He choose not to use anything other than Himself as the upAdAna, nimitta or sahakAri kAraNa-s? It is because He loves the jIva-s so much, that He does not want anything to go wrong in His creation by using anything that is not part of Himself. So He, Who is the embodiment of sauSIlyam,
decides to become the Sole cause for everything from His One form, that of vAsudeva. From this form, He then creates the other deities and devatA-s, Rshi-s and other great souls, and all the other cetana-s and acetana-s. He becomes their antaryAmi, and permanently resides in them to guide them in
whatever path they choose to follow while they are embodied, and this is how His great guNa of sauSIlyam expresses itself.

tannil mUvar mudalAya: This phrase has been interpreted in different ways by different AcArya-s. SrImad tirukkuDanthai ANDavan has given two of these interpretations in his vyAkhyAnam titled bhagavad vishayam: tannODu mUvarAna tri- mUrtigaL tuDakkamAna – starting with the
tri-mUrti-s that includes Him. “Piramanukkum rudranukkum antaryAmiyAi irundu sRshTi samhAra’ngaLaic ceigiRAn. tAnAgavE irundu rakshaNam SeigiRAn” – He performs the function of rakshaNam or protection Himself, and He performs the functions of creation and destruction by being the antaryAmi of brahmA and rudra respectively.

The question can be asked: “Why does He present Himself as “one among the three”? Would it not be a negative reflection on His parattvam, by just being ‘one among the three’?” To understand that His parattvam is not in the least affected because of this, all we have to do is to look at His rAma incarnation, His kRshNa incarnation etc., where He took incarnations among ordinary folks. Just by taking incarnation as one among the ikshvAku family, He does not become just another ordinary ikshavAku, but He is emperumAn in all senses, even though He is an ikshvAku for our eyes. Just
by taking incarnation in the yAdava clan, He does not become just another yAdava. He is still the paramAtmA. So also, His being counted as “one of the three” does not in any way diminish His parattvam. svAmi deSikan explains that bhagavAn does not in any way lose any of His kalyANa guNa-s in
the least in any of His incarnations (SaraNAgati dIpikA Slokam 17, where the avatAra rahasyam of perumAL is described).

- The second interpretation given by SrImad ANDavan is: brahmA, rudra, indran mUvarkkum kAraNa bhUtan – He Who is the Cause of the three principal deva-s, namely brahmA, rudra and indra (followed by the creation of all the other deva-s etc. – vAnOr palarum … muRRumAi). This second interpretation is supported by reference to this ‘trio’ in the upnaishad - “sa brahmA, sa SivaH, sendraH so’ksharaH paramaH svarAT” (mahA nArAyaNa upanishad). Here, ‘mudalAi’ can be taken to mean ‘mudalAya – et
cetera’, instead of meaning “Supreme - mudal”. In addition, “il” in tamizh means “house, meaning ‘in Him’”. So, “tan il mUvar mudalAi” can mean “He Who has His body as the residing place or Origin for brahmA, rudra, indra, etc.”, or, He Who has their bodies as His residing Place, namely, He is
their antaryAmi.

An alternate interpretation for ‘tannil mUvar mudalAi’ is that He manifested Himself in the forms of sa’nkarshaNa, pradyumna, and aniruddha – the vyUha incarnations, all of whom are manifestations of the same Supreme Deity,vAsudeva, and form the base for all the other deva-s etc”. (tannil – in
Himself; that is, svAntargatamAna, sva avatAra’ngaLAna – Not different from Himself in any sense, His own incarnations).

The following are the different anubhavam-s of the words “tannil” and
“mUvar”:
– the three including Him; tannODu SErndu mUvar (na’njIyar)
– in His sankalpam, in His mental resolve. He decided He will be many, and then He proceeded with the creation of the many, and He became their antaryAmi. This is described in taittirIya upanishad, in the mantra starting with ‘so’kAmayata | bahu syAm prajAyeyeti |’…. (taittirIya. upa.BrahmAnanda. 6).
– il – house. He who has made the three (indra, rudra, and brahmA, and all the other deva-s, etc.) as the house for Him – in other words, He is the antaryAmi of all of these.
– tannai viDa vERu paDAda mUvar – referring to sankarshaNa,a pradyumna and aniruddha – the three vyUha emanations from the para vAsudeva form.
– With Him being the first and foremost among the trio. maRRum maRRum muRRumAi – He decided to create everything, including thehumans, animals, and acetana-s, etc., in addition to the others mentioned earlier – namely, vAnor palarum, munivarum, etc., without exception. Everything is His creation.

tAn Or peru nIr tannuLLE tORRi adanuL kaN vaLarum – He creates this big Ocean in Himself, and then is reclining on it. Again, multiple anubhavam-s are available for our enjoyment, for this phrase.
The last syllable “Ai” in “muRRumAi” can mean “Aga – “to become”, or “Agi” –“having become”.
- If “muRRum Aga” is taken as the meaning, then the interpretation is that bhagavAn is reclining in the waters of pralaya prior to the creation of brahmANDam in the small fig-tree leaf (Al ilai), contemplating on how to protect the jIva-s that are to be created – all the cetana-s and acetana-s described in
the first two lines of this pASuram. Note that protection of the jIva-s is His main concern (kAkkum iyalvinan kaNNa perumAn – 2.2.9).
- If the meaning is taken as “muRRum Ai” – “having become all of the things outlined in the first two lines”, then the interpretation is that He is reclining in the Milk Ocean, after the creation, for the benefit of the deva-s etc., so that He can help them whenever they need His help. He reclines in it and patiently waits just in case the deva-s etc. need His help in times of trouble from the asura-s.
- Not being content with thus ensuring that all the jIva-s get all they need for recovering themselves from the ocean of samsAra, He creates a big Ocean in Himself, and lies in this great ocean and keeps meditating on what else He can do to help the jIva-s overcome their cycle of birth and death.

vAnOr perumAn –The Lord of all the deva-s and all the other deities. He is the Seed from which everything originates.

mA mAyan – One Who conceals His identity superbly such that even those who consider themselves very learned, do not figure out His mAyai (ivai avan tuyakkE – 1.3.9).

vaikunthan – He Who is the Lord of SrI vaikunTham - SrIman nArAyaNan. kunTha in samskRt denotes obstacles to union (kuThi – gati pragAthe –obstructing the path). Since bhagavAn removes the obstacles to union with Him, namely the sins of His devotees, He is called vai-kunThan. His Abode is SrI vaikunTham, where the nitya sUri-s are performing constant, eternal and unblemished service to Him. He leaves His Supreme Abode of SrI vaikunTham, and involves Himself in all the above-mentioned actions, just for the sake of redeeming the jIva-s, once again an expression of His limitless sauSIlyam.

em perumAn – He is My Lord and Master. ‘em’ – My own. Because of His infinite sauSIlyam, He is the Master to whom AzhvAr feels intensely dedicated to perform kainkaryam without interruption.

The best analogy to explain the message of this pASuram is to think of a seed that contains in it all the extensive branches, leaves, fruits, etc. When the tree grows out of the seed, we see all of these branches, leaves,etc. displayed. So also, Lord SrIman nArAyaNa has all the beings of all the Universes inside Him – including brahmA and rudra who form the trinity along with Him, and all the deva-s, the Rshi-s, and all the other cetanas  and a-cetana-s. It is from Him that everything arises
---------------------**************---------------------

The one who is all these three Karanamam – upadana, Nimitta, Sahakari is the Brahmam.  This is the one of the key concept of Vishistaadvaitam where Upadanam and nimittam is done by brahmam itself. This is referred as “Abhinna nimittopadana Brahmam”

Note: Fo advaitha philosophies explanation on Cause of Creation refer to http://www.kamakoti.org/hindudharma/part13/chap7.htm

 Brahmam, the moment it does the sankalpam, everything is formed. This is a game he plays.  At the end of the game he absorbs everything back on to him.
Now the question is how can he do this ?

Bhattar explains this by referring  to peacock spreading its beauitful feathers out while dancing and takes is back.
From where did the feather come from – from the peacock
Who did the sankalpam to dance – Peacock
Who helped the peacock to dance – peacock itself
If a peacock can do all the 3 karanamam why not Brahmam do upadana, Nimitta, Sahakari karanam’s all by himself ?

Brahmam is like a peacock who plays this game of Shristi/Pralaya for the sake of Mahalakshmi.  And Bhagawan does this sankalpam when he gets the signal from Mahalakshmi’s eye brows.

Thirumazhisai AzhwAr writes:
thannuLE thiraitthezhun tharanga veN thadankadal
thannulE thiraitthezhundhu adanguginRa thanmai pOl
ninnuLE piRandhu iRandhu niRpavum thiribavum
ninnulE adanguginRa neermai ninkaN ninRandhE..
This verse clears all our doubts. The deep vast sea which has the entire gamut of waves in them, brings the waves out to a huge heights and takes it back to itself.. Similarly, in You, the movable and the non movable (the chith and achith) are born out of You and then ultimately go back to You during praLaya.
You shud visit Varkala in west coast where the waves are huge.
The ocean/kadal here does all the 3 karanam’s.

Another beautiful example is Spider/poochi.
The Vedas expound this nature of Bhagavan with the illustration of the spider, which creates a web out of its own saliva, and withdraws the web into itself when it feels it is no more needed.

If a peacock, spider, ocean can do all the 3 karanamam why not Brahmam do upadana, Nimitta, Sahakari karanam’s all by himself ? So bhrahmam is the all the three Karanamam – upadana, Nimitta, Sahakari and is the karnanan for Shristi/pralayam.

The jagad which is formed is also Brahmam and the cause for the formation is also Brahmam. For this Brahmam has two roopam
Sukshuma roopam – Sukshuma roopamana chetana/achetana vishista Brahmam Shristiku Karanamaga
Sthula roopam – Sthula roopamana chetana/achetana vishista Brahmam Shristiku kariyamaga.

This jagad formation/ is what is explained in these Vishnu sahasranamam slogams( yada sarvani…) to say that the one who is doing all these is none other than Vishnu.

So how does he create ?
Akashat Vayuhu, Vayur Agnihi, Agnir Apaha, Adyah Pruthivi, Pruthivya Oshadhayaha, Oshadhayo Annam, Annaath Purushaha.

----** order of creation from speaking tree article***
“Akashat Vayuhu,” From the space came the air. Space is the first manifestation. We find in nature that an individual creates a dwelling place. And Prana created its own abode by generating Air is the thought of the Veda. This is therefore the second manifestation.  ”Vayur Agnihi” From the air came fire. We find that when hydrogen is burnt using oxygen we see fire and it results in water. Therefore Fire is the third manifestation. And “Agnir Apaha” Water is the fourth manifestation. ”Adyah Pruthivi” From this water manifested the earth. This is the fifth manifestation. “Pruthivya Oshadhayaha” From the earth came vegetation. This is the sixth manifestation. “Oshadhayo Annam” From the vegetation came food. This is the seventh manifestation. “Annaath Purushaha” From this food came the jeevi. This is the eighth manifestation.

As per the ancient thought of the Indian scriptures the whole universe and the human body both are made of Pancha Maha Bhuta, the five elements. Pancha is five, Maha is great, and Bhuta is life sustainers. They are Akasha (Ether), Vayu (Air), Agni (Fire), Aapa (Water), and Prithvi (Earth). These five elements (atomic particles) have got their evolution from the five preliminary elements called Pancha Tanmatras which are the minutest infra atomic particles and which has the sensing ability. These Pancha Tanmatras are Shabdha (Sound), Sparsha (Touch), Roopa (Sight), Rasa (Taste), and Gandha (Smell).

At the onset it was Akasha Bhuta, the ether element which had only sound, the Shabdha Tanmatra in it. From it evolved the Vayu Bhuta, the Air element which along with the sound has the touch, the Sparsh Tanmatra in it. Hence the air is felt and heard. From Vayu came Agni Bhuta, Fire element which along
with the sound and touch has the sight, Roopa Tanmatra in it. Hence we are able to see, feel, and hear it. From the Agni came the Aapa Bhuta, the water element which along with the sound, touch, and sight has the taste, Rasa Tanmatra in it. Hence we can taste the water and also see, feel and hear it. From
the Aapa came the Pritivi Bhuta, the earth element which along with the sound, touch, sight, and taste has smell, the Gandha Tanmatra in it. Hence we can smell the earth and also see, feel, hear, and taste it.  
----** order of creation***


During Pralayam, it happens in the reverse order and it gets back to Brahmam.
Tirumazhisai Alwar in his tiruchchanda viruttam says
1.          Boo nilAya aindumAi punar kaN ninra nAngumAi
tee nilAya moonrumAi Siranda kAl iraNDumAi |
mee nilAyadu onrumAhi vEru vEru tanmaiyAi
nee nilAya vaNNam ninnai yAr ninaikka vallarE || 1 ||
BagavAn  is  the ‘niyAmaka’ of everything that He has created.  ‘AkAshAt vAyu:’ says Sruti.  Therefore from AkASa  comes  vAyu;  from vAyu the agni; from agni water; from Water prutvi.  Each one has one guNa  only.  AkASa – sound;  vAyu – sparSa;  agni – roopa;  Water – rasa  and  prutvi – gandha. Since AkASa  is  the  first  tatva  it  has  only  sound  as  its  guNa; the  vAyu  has two guNAs – one of its own (sparSa) and the other of the previous tatva (AkASa’s).  Thus agni will  have  three, Water will have two and prutvi will have five.  Thus pancha BootAs obey His orders (the nature of each one is determined by Him).

Nammazhvar’s pasuram – Achuthan yennum mei ..hari
Nammazhvar embraced the fire and he didn’t feel the fire because he is achuthan.
Vyakyathar says “Nayaganukkum Nayagikkum vishseshathule(pirinthu irukkum pothu) vayukumaranai thazhuvuvathu swabhavam ”
Nayagan – Raman
Nayagi -  Nammazhwar
Raman embraced Vayu kumaran Hanuman. Here Nayagi is Parangusa Nayagi, who is Nammazhwar who embraced Agni the Vayu kumaran when he was away from Perumal.
So Agni is born from Vayu.

·         Yasminscha pralayam yanti - yevan idathil yellam sendru layikiratho
During Pralayam, it happens in the reverse order and everything gets back to Brahmam as explained above.
Bheesma has been explaining about the Brahmam and now he is further comfirming who that brahmam is by saying he is none other than Lokanathan , Jagannathan, Vishnu himself.
Narayana Suktham (?) Shastram says “Viswam narayanam ….. “ “Viswam Narayana Prabhu”
“Sahasra seersham devam viswaksham viswa sambhuvam.
Viswam narayanam  devam aksharam paramam padam. “
I meditate on god Narayana,Who has thousands of heads,Who sees everywhere,Who does good to all the world,Who is the world,Who is indestructible,And who is the greatest destination.

Nammaazhvaar's Thiruvaaymozhi 4.10.1 paasuram:
onRum dhEvum ulagum  uyirum maRRum yaadhumillaa
anRu, naanmugan thannodu dhEvarulagOduyir padaiththaan,
kunRam pOlmaNi maadam needu thirukkurukooradhanuL,
ninRa aadhippiraan niRka maRRaith dheyvam naadudhirE.

(There was none, no gods, no life, nothing,
   Then, He begot the four-faced one along
      with the heavens and all other lives!
 He, Athippiraan (the primordial Lord) stands=20
   like a great gem in the temple town of
      Thirukurugoor bedecked with fancy buildings,
 Yet you seek other gods?!)

3226:##
ilingath thitta puraaNaththeerum* samaNarum saakkiyarum*
valinthu vaadhu seyveergaLum*  maRRunNunN dheyvamum aaginNinRaan*
malinthu sen^_nel kavari  veesum* thirukkurugoor adhanuL,*
polinthu ninRapiraan kandeer* onRum poyyillai pORRuminE. (2)              4.10.5
5. Oh Guys! who talk about different PuraaNas! The samaNargaL, (Jains),Buddhists, your demi Gods, and in you, in every being, He, Emperumaan stays as antharyaami. He is the same one who stands most gracefully at Thirukurugoor as Adhi Piraan. He is the Adhi Naathan. There is not an iota of lie in all my statements. Hence, Please pray to Him and get saved.

This Vishnu’s namam is what I am going to explain and hye King listen to the same. This will get rid of the
Papam and the fear caused due to the papam.

Bhagavan being the material and auxiliary cause for this creation:

The Brahma sutra also says “from whom all are born”. Another statement “Brahman was the forest, Brahman was also the tree” shows the characteristic of Brahman being all three types of causes. Quoting thus from all the Vedas, the composer of Brahma Sutras – Vyasa Maharshi – has concluded that the Supreme Brahman Himself is the cause of all creation.
Thus, it is against the Vedas to say that Bhagavan is the material cause of this creation and Shiva – the demigod – is the instrumental cause.
Also, Bhagavan does not undergo any transformations due to His being the material cause of this creation. This is because all of the sentient and insentient entities are verily the body of the Brahman. The Vedas expound this nature of Bhagavan with the illustration of the spider, which creates a web out of its own saliva, and withdraws the web into itself when it feels it is no more needed.
Even in these verses, the usage of probing words such as ‘the One who is the Supreme Godhead’ (yO daivataM) et al (instead of showing a certain entity to be the Supreme with words such as ‘He is the Supreme Godhead’ – ‘saH daivataM’ etc) indicate the popularity of the Supreme Brahman among the Vedas and other scriptures.
Thus, when one seeks to determine that One Supreme Soul from the Upanishads with all its characteristics, rank, worshipping modes, the fruits of attainment, et al, who is denoted by inclusive tags such as ‘sentient’, ‘insentient’, ‘magnanimous’, ‘eternal’, et al, exclusive tags such as ‘Supreme’ et al, as well as common names such as ‘Brahma’, ‘Hari’, ‘Shiva’, then he learns about that entity from: (a) the statements such as “Narayana is the Supreme Brahman, and Narayana is the Supreme Entity”, “That Supreme abode of Lord Vishnu”, “Other than whom there is none who is Superior to all”, “There is none superior to the Purusha”, “There is none or nothing superior to Me”, “the Supreme Purusha is different”, et al which talk about the creations in a very generic tone, (b) the other portions of Vedas such as Purusha Sukta, Uttara Narayana, et al which expound the Supreme Entity in a much stronger way, (c) the declarations of myriad of Upanishads such as Subala, Maitrayaneeya, Mahopanishat, Chandogya, Taittireeya, Aitareya, Kathavalli, et al, (d) the saatvika puranas that expound the Supreme Soul, (e) the preaching of learned scholars who know in completeness the nature of the Supreme Brahman, such as Parashara, Vyasa, Valmiki and other scholarly sages, and (f) the Agamas supported by the Vedas themselves, which propound the various abilities of the Supreme Self such as the beauty, weapons, vehicles, special pastimes, et al.
From all these sources of knowledge, the absolute supremacy of Bhagavan, and absolute servitude of all others is very easily understood by every intelligent soul. All our fore preceptors have already preached verily this absolute supremacy of Bhagavan with all the sources of knowledge such as Dahara, Vaishvanara, et al, as well as the first chapter of Brahma sutras namely ‘samanvaya adhikaraNa’. Thus, we shall not elaborate on this too much.
This was also put forth by Yamunacharya in a very concise manner when he said “You are known to be the Supreme by your characters, form as well as pastimes”.
Even my revered father Sri Kooratthazwan has said thus:
“From all the hundreds of the Supreme Vedic statements that glorify you, from all the statements in the smrithis and other scriptures that complement the Vedas, from all the saatvika puranas and Itihasas, and from all the nectarine words of the most learned people, we only learn that you are the Supreme Entity.” (Vaikuntha stavam – 17)
“From the extraordinary beauty and wealth that you possess, from your ownership of the Supreme Abode Sri Vaikuntham, from all the divine pastimes that you showed to your dear devotees during your incarnations, and from some more particular signs that distinctly identify you – that cannot be refuted by anyone whatsoever, the learned scholars concur in identifying the natural supremacy in you.” (Vaikuntha stavam – 28)
Thus, having well discussed about the most Supreme Entity (Sriman Narayana) and the various means to attain that supreme entity, and also having propounded the best of those means to attain the supreme entity (nama-sankirtanam or chanting of His divine names), Bhishma proceeded to engage the listener – Yudhishtira – in the discussion about the thousand names of the lord with the next sloka that begins with ‘tasya’:
·         Tasya – antha jagad karana vastuvana bhagawan
·         Lokanathan
·         pradhanan s
·         Jagannathan –  he is the jagannathan
·         Hye BHupate – Bheeshma is addressing Yudhitra as “BHupate” avanai patthi than solla pogiren.
(Note – he is yet to say/reveal who is that deivatam)
·         Vishnor nama-sahasram – Vishnu vin sahasra namathai pattri than solla pogiren
·         papa-bhayapaham – papathaiyum, papathinal undagum bayathaiyum azhikum, pokkum
·         shrunu – ketpai
 ‘tasya’ – representing the Supreme Entity discussed till now; of that Supreme Soul
‘lOkapradhAnasya’ – of the master of all (ashESha-shEShi)
‘jagannAthasya’ – of the controller of all
‘viShNOH nAmasahasram pApabhayApaham’ – of all the sacred means related to worship of the Supreme Lord Vishnu, other than surrendering at His lotus feet, the chanting of the thousand names of the Lord is certainly the only surest way to uproot all forms of sins and the fears caused thereof.
‘mE’ – ‘from me’, or ‘for my sake’
‘shruNu’ – listen; an express invitation to Yudhishtira – who actually volunteered to meet Bhishma to listen to all the dharmas – to listen to the thousand glorious names of the Lord.
‘bhUpatE’ – ‘Oh king’; this form of addressing Yudhishtira indicates the appreciation of Bhishma towards him with the happiness of having obtained a suitable audience for the lofty discourse
This Vishnu’s namam is what I am going to explain and hye King listen to the same. This will get rid of the
Papam and the fear caused due to the papam.

ஸர்வம்ஸ்ரீகிருஷ்ணார்ப்பணம்

2 comments:

  1. What is the origination of these bad qualities?

    Adiyen

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    Replies
    1. Bad qualities to my knowledge is because of the Triguna's. Moola prakruthi is full of these and we jeevathma's when we acquire a sareeram are also impacted becuase of these. The challenge for a jeevathma is to overcome these bad qualities through the Karma, Jnana, Bhakthi, Saranagathi.

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